The web is full of tutorials and guides to learn programming Android devices. But there is also a lot of noise out there that you want to avoid. This is a list of high-quality blogs about developing for Android that I follow.
In his blog, Cyril Mottier explains how to use certain SDKs like the Google Maps API, explains several UI patterns in fine detail and also discusses best practices around Android development. One post I found very helpful in particular was that one about A productive Android Development Environment.
This blog by Romain Guy is not only about Android, but also about photography and his hobbies. But the best reason to read this blog is that he works at Google on the Android project, so you get very in-depth posts about the internals and how to use e.g. hardware layers and recipes on how to develop certain UI patterns like a sliding menu in Android apps.
This one by Ravi Tamada just contains very helpful tutorials on how to apply good UI/UX patterns to your app and how to use standard components of the Android SDK.
Unfortunately, the second recommendation seems to be a dead horse. But nevertheless, I can really advise this page to you. Like the name suggests, this blog focusses more on the styling aspect of building an app with Android.
Android UI Patterns
I think you may have already got it: this blog is about user interface patterns for Android. Juhani Lehtimaki discusses several patterns, explains why apps are built with the interface they are built with.
Again, this blog is all about Android design. UI and User experience are the big topics of this blog and common patterns as well as redesigns of successful apps are discussed here. By Taylor Ling.
You can find very basic tutorials around Android development on Vogella. There's tutorials on how to use e.g. ListViews or how to use databases in your app as well as how to use the sensors of your smartphone or tablet.
Google+, Reddit and Youtube
Of course there are several other communities out there that focus on Android development. Nameley there is (as to every other topic) a Subredit. This playlist on Youtube also contains several helpful tutorials if you are not so into reading blogs.
And there's a Google+ community that focusses on projects on Github, that contain libraries or Open Source apps for Android.